Open Access Journal

ISSN : 2456-1304 (Online)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering(IJERECE)

Monthly Journal for Electronics and Communication Engineering

Open Access Journal

International Journal of Science Engineering and Management (IJSEM)

Monthly Journal for Science Engineering and Management

ISSN : 2456-1304 (Online)

Cultural and Cognitive Factors in English Assessment Bias for Visual / Hearing Impaired Examinees

Author : Kurumi Saito Ph.D

Date of Publication :25th March 2024

Abstract:This study aims to identify biased items or tasks for examinees with visual and hearing disabilities in English certificate examinations and to propose possible revision and elimination of these to promote bias-free English examinations. Studies on cultural and cognitive factors began in the 1970s, including disadvantages of specific groups such as Arabic and Black children. However, the cultural factors of disabilities have not been considered as bias, in spite that persons with disabilities should be entitled to recognition and support of their specific cultural identity as stated in CRPD. This article analyzes passages, using sensitive review and DIF, in Japanese EIKEN and those of the sham examinations of TOEIC in the ETS official guide books, since TOEIC itself is not made public. It presents the biases and proposes that customizations rather than accommodations can be more effective.

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