Open Access Journal

ISSN : 2394-6849 (Online)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering(IJERECE)

Monthly Journal for Electronics and Communication Engineering

Open Access Journal

International Journal of Science Engineering and Management (IJSEM)

Monthly Journal for Science Engineering and Management

ISSN : 2456-1304 (Online)

Destruction of Cultural Heritage: A Major Human Rights Violation

Author : Soma Battacharjya 1 2

Date of Publication :19th August 2021

Abstract: Cultural Heritage, which is the embodiment of past, representation of human achievement, their Caliber and beauty belongs to entire humanity and not just to any nation. Unfortunately, such reminisance of past was subjected to ruthless destruction which interferes with the cultural identity of people. Whether it is Afganisthan, Iraq, Libya or Syria, the rampant destruction of Cultural Heritage has created a worldwide debate that by attacking the Cultural Heritage of these nations, what do we get? Is it a way to destroy the identity of people by destroying their past? Ironically to deal with such situation, we have Hague Convention and UNESCO Convention with all their complexities and procedure, but none of them are able to alter the facts that it is not able to stop the destruction of Cultural Heritage that happened in most of the war torn countries. Another question that can be raised here is that how many destruction of Cultural Heritage is intentional in nature. Thus the paper will explore the nature of intentional destruction and how international law replies to such situation. In the word of United Nation expert Ms. Bennoune such attacks “undermines the right to freedom from discrimination and numerous other human rights, including the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; the right to freedom of artistic expression and creativity; and the rights to take part in cultural life, and to access and enjoy cultural heritage”. Although attack on Cultural heritage is not new but prosecutions are recent in nature. Statutory and treaty law dating to the Geneva Convention and Nuremberg Trials provide important jurisprudence regarding crimes of cultural destruction, and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) has been particularly active in pursuing accountability. Now what are those jurisprudences that are developed in these trials and how far it has recognized the destruction of Cultural Heritage as Human Rights violation will be explored in this paper

Reference :

    1. Hugo Grotius, De Jure Belli Ac Pads Libri Treos (The Law of War and Peace), Book III, pp.643--4 (III/IV /UI), translated by F.W. Kelse, Oxford, at the Clarendon Press, 1925. Cited in Toman, Jiri, "The Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict" (1996). Legal Monographs and Treatises. Book 11. http://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/monographs/11
    2. Erika J Trichera, ‗PROTECTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN TIMES OF ARMED CONFLICT: THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK REVISITED‘ cited in Toman, Jiri, "The Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict" (1996). Legal Monographs and Treatises. Book 11. http://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/monographs/11http s://www.researchgate.net/publication/228260427_Prot ection_of_Cultural_Heritage_in_Times_of_Armed_Co nflict_The_International_Legal_Framework_Revisited last visited 23.06.2021
    3. Stanislaw E. Nahlik, 'Protection of Cultural Property', p.204, who cites G.F. Martens, Nouveau receuil de traites d'alliance, de paix, de treve, de neutralite, de commerce, de limites, d' echange, etc. et de plusieurs autres actes servant Ii la connaissance des relations etrangeres des puissances et Etats de l'Europe tant dans leur rapport mutuel que dans celui envers les puissances et Etats dans d' autres parties du globe, depuis 1808 jusqu'a present, Vol. II, Gottingen, Dieterich, 1817, p.632 et seq. cited in Toman, Jiri, "The Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict" (1996). Legal Monographs and Treatises. Book 11. http://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/monographs/11http s://www.researchgate.net/publication/228260427_Prot ection_of_Cultural_Heritage_in_Times_of_Armed_Co nflict_The_International_Legal_Framework_Revisited last visited 23.06.2021
    4. Hamed Sultan, 'The Islamic Concept', in Nahlik, International Dimensions of Humanitarian Law, p.38. cited in Toman, Jiri, "The Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict" (1996). Legal Monographs and Treatises. Book 11.http://http://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/monographs/11http s://www.researchgate.net/publication/228260427_Prot ection_of_Cultural_Heritage_in_Times_of_Armed_Co nflict_The_International_Legal_Framework_Revisited last visited 23.06.2021
    5.  Article 35 of The Lieber Code, 1863  https://archive.org/stream/pdfyNG4E2nsEimXkB 5mU/The+Lieber+Code+Of+1863_djvu.txt last visited 23.06.2021 cited in Toman, Jiri, "The Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict" (1996). Legal Monographs and Treatises. Book 11. http://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/monographs/11http s://www.researchgate.net/publication/228260427_Prot ection_of_Cultural_Heritage_in_Times_of_Armed_Co nflict_The_International_Legal_Framework_Revisited last visited 23.06.2021
    6. Article 36 of The Lieber Code, 1863https://archive.org/stream/pdfyNG4E2nsEimXkB 5mU/The+Lieber+Code+Of+1863_djvu.txt last visited 26.06.2021 cited in Toman, Jiri, "The Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict" (1996). Legal Monographs and Treatises. Book 11. http://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/monographs/11http s://www.researchgate.net/publication/228260427_Prot ection_of_Cultural_Heritage_in_Times_of_Armed_Co nflict_The_International_Legal_Framework_Revisited last visited 23.06.2021
    7. Article 8, Project of an International Declaration concerning the Laws and Customs of War (Brussels, 27 August 1874), https://web.ics.purdue.edu/~wggray/Teaching/His300/ Handouts/Brussels-1874.html, last visited 26.06.2021 cited in Toman, Jiri, "The Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict" (1996). Legal Monographs and Treatises. Book 11. http://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/monographs/11http s://www.researchgate.net/publication/228260427_Prot ection_of_Cultural_Heritage_in_Times_of_Armed_Co nflict_The_International_Legal_Framework_Revisited last visited 26.06.2021
    8.  Article 27 LAWS AND CUSTOMS OF WAR ON LAND (HAGUE, II), 1899 and Law and Custom of War on Land (Hague IV), 1907 https://www.loc.gov/law/help/us-treaties/bevans/must000001-0247.pdf, last visited 26.03.2020 cited in Toman, Jiri, "The Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict" (1996). Legal Monographs and Treatises. Book 11. http://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/monographs/11http s://www.researchgate.net/publication/228260427_Prot ection_of_Cultural_Heritage_in_Times_of_Armed_Co nflict_The_International_Legal_Framework_Revisited last visited 26.06.2021
    9. Article 15, Project of an International Declaration concerning the Laws and Customs of War (Brussels, 27 August 1874), https://web.ics.purdue.edu/~wggray/Teaching/His300/ Handouts/Brussels-1874.html, last visited 26.03.2021 cited in Toman, Jiri, "The Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict" (1996). Legal Monographs and Tretises. Baook 11. http://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/monographs/11http s://www.researchgate.net/publication/228260427_Prot ection_of_Cultural_Heritage_in_Times_of_Armed_Co nflict_The_International_Legal_Framework_Revisited last visited 26.06.2021
    10. Article 47 LAWS AND CUSTOMS OF WAR ON LAND (HAGUE, II), 1899 and Law and Custom of War on Land (Hague IV), 1907 https://www.loc.gov/law/help/us-treaties/bevans/must000001-0247.pdf, last visited 26.03.2021, cited in Toman, Jiri, "The Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict" (1996). Legal Monographs and Treatises. Book 11. http://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/monographs/11http s://www.researchgate.net/publication/228260427_Prot ection_of_Cultural_Heritage_in_Times_of_Armed_Co nflict_The_International_Legal_Framework_Revisited last visited 26.06.2021
    11. Article 16, Project of an International Declaration concerning the Laws and Customs of War (Brussels, 27 August 1874), https://web.ics.purdue.edu/~wggray/Teaching/His300/ Handouts/Brussels-1874.html, last visited 26.06.2021

Recent Article