Open Access Journal

ISSN : 2456-1304 (Online)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering(IJERECE)

Monthly Journal for Electronics and Communication Engineering

Open Access Journal

International Journal of Science Engineering and Management (IJSEM)

Monthly Journal for Science Engineering and Management

ISSN : 2456-1304 (Online)

Assessment of the Applications of Economic Instruments for Improving Water Use Efficiency in Domestic Sector

Author : S. Ashwin Ram 1 Zareena Begum Irfan 2

Date of Publication :30th December 2021

Abstract: Water is an essential and exhaustible natural resource that is fast depleting due rapid population growth and climate change. There is a growing consensus among global development community that water security is increasingly becoming one of the biggest development and environmental challenge of the century next to climate change. Predominant effort towards the supply and allocation of water resource resulted in inefficient water usage across different sectors leading to water scarcity. The Dublin statement in 1992 recognized water should be treated as an economic good among its competing uses. Since then several countries across the globe started to experiment with the applications of economic instruments to address water security. This paper provides an exhaustive review of literature highlighting some critical research gap on the applications of economic instruments in water sector aimed at improving water use efficiency in domestic sector.

Reference :

    1. Ahamad, S., Ali, H.S., Mirza, M.U and Lotia, H., (2017). The Limits of Water Pricing in Developing Countries Metropolis: Empirical Lessons from an Industrial City of Pakistan. Water, 9 (7), 533-551
    2. Arbués, F. and Villanúa, I. (2006). Potential for Pricing Policies in Water Resources Mangement: Estimation of Urban Residential Water demand in Zaragoza, Spain. Urban Studies, 43(13), 2421-2442
    3. Boland, J.J., and Whittington, D. (1997). Water Tariff Design in Developing Countries: Disadvantages of IBTs and Advantages of Uniform Price with Rebate Designs. John Hopkins University Working Paper.
    4.  Chan, N.W.W. (2012). Urban Water Pricing: Equity and Affordability. Australia National University, Global Water Forum, Discussion paper 1209
    5. Grafton, R.Q., and Ward, M. (2007). Prices Versus Rationing: Marshallian Surplus and Mandatory Water Restrictions. Australian National University, Crawford School of Economics and Government, Working Paper, 07-05
    6. Hoglund, L. (1999). Household demand for water in Sweden with implications of a potential tax on water use. Water Resources Research, 35(12), 3853-3863
    7. Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change, 2014. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Chapter 3, Freshwater Resources. Contribution of working group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 229-269 Retrieved from IAR5-Chap3_FINAL.pdf
    8.  Nauges, C., and Whttington, D. (2016). Evaluating the Performance of Alternative Water Tariff Designs: Quantifying the Tradeoffs between Equity, Efficiency and Cost Recovery. World Development, 91, 125-143
    9. Olmstead, S.M., and Stavins, R.N. (2009). Comparing Price and Non Price Approaches to Urban Water Conservation. Water Resources Research, 45(4), W04301
    10. Renzetti, S., Dupont, P.D., and Chitsinde, T. (2015). An empirical examination of distributional impacts of water pricing reforms. Utilities Policy, 34, 63-69
    11. Rinaudo, J.D., Neverre, N., and Montginoul, M., (2012). Simulating the Impact of Residential Water Demand: A Southern France Case Study. Water Resource Management, 26(7), 2057-2068
    12. Rogers, P., De Silva, R., and Bhatia, R. (2002). Water is an Economic Good. How to use Prices to Promote Equity, Efficiency and Sustainability. Water Policy, 4, 1-17
    13. Ruijs, A., Zimmermann, A., and Van den Berg, M. (2007). Demand and distributional effects of water pricing policies. Ecological Economics, 66 (2),(3), 506-516
    14. Saidi, M.A. (2017). Urban water pricing in Yemen: a comparison of increasing block tariffs to other pricing schemes. Water International, 42(3), 1941-1707
    15. Scheierling, S.M. (2014). Why water presents special challenges: a brief rationale for water resource economics. World Bank Water Blog.
    16. Senante, M.M., and Donoso, G. (2016). Water scarcity and affordability in urban water pricing: A case study of Chile. Utilities Policy, 43(A), 1-10
    17. Sibly, H., and Tooth, R. (2013). The consequences of pricing increasing block tariffs to price urban water. The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 58(2), 223-243
    18. Tortella, B.D., Garcia, C., Nilsson, W., and Tirado, D. (2017). Analysis of Water Tariff Reform on Water Consumption in Different Housing Typologies in Calvia (Mollorca). Water, 9(6), 425
    19. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, (2016). United Nations Word Water Development Report 2016, Water and Jobs: Facts and Figures. Retrieved from
    20. United Nations Development Programme Support to the Implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 6, Sustainable Management of Water and Sanitation. (2016) Retrieved from le%20Development/6_Water_Jan15_digital.pdf
    21. Wichman, C.J., Taylor, L.O., and Von Haefen, R.G. (2016). Conservation Policies: Who responds to price and who responds to prescription? Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 79, 114-134
    22. Willis, E., Pearce, M., Mamerow, L., Jorgensen, B., and Martin, J. (2013). Perceptions of Water Pricing during a Drought: A Case Study from South Australia. Water, 5(1), 197-223

Recent Article