Author : Mallika Joshi 1
Date of Publication :12th September 2023
Abstract: The human brain utilizes a large amount of oxygen, a requirement it avails via oxidative phosphorylation. With an imbalance in the required and utilized oxygen levels, the brain’s environment undergoes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are free radicals containing oxygen such as superoxide (O2·–) and hydroxyl radical (·OH). The glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system plays a major role in modulating the ROS levels. If there is a depletion in GSH concentration, the ROS levels increase due to which the brain experiences stresses arising from metabolic dysregulation, cell apoptosis, protein aggregation and neurotransmitter and neurochemical connection impairment. Due to these stresses, neurological disorders may arise and result in attributes such as anatomical atrophies, and progressive neuronal cell apoptosis that may have roots in molecular and neurochemical level imbalances. The repercussions can be seen in the form of deficits encompassing, pyramidal or extra-pyramidal symptoms, cognitive decline, emotional processing dysfunction, visual and auditory hallucinations, and fear triggering common to brain disorders. A structural and neurochemical analysis with the aid of neuroimaging modalities can help in the new age theragnostic approach of brain disorder study and treatment.